SOVIET OPERATIONAL DECEPTION: THE RED CLOAK (REVISED, WITH ALL NEW MATERIAL)
The Secret War argues that the democracies made better use of intelligence because their leaders were more open-minded — unlike Stalin, who refused to believe in that the Germans were about to attack his country.
The Mask of the Bear: Soviet Deception in Operation Bagration | Automatic Ballpoint
But the greatest espionage success of all, the Soviet penetration of the Manhattan Project , suggests otherwise. Despite its revisionist air this is an old-fashioned book, rooted in the insular British s, oblivious to the complexities that modern scholars have introduced to our understanding of the war, especially the dark miasma of nationalisms in eastern Europe, and with nothing about the offstage manoeuvrings that accompanied the Holocaust.
Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Topics History books The Observer. Second world war Espionage reviews. Reuse this content. Order by newest oldest recommendations. Show 25 25 50 All. Threads collapsed expanded unthreaded. Loading comments… Trouble loading? Most popular. This weapon was carried in pairs underwing and set a trend followed to this day. The drag penalties of this form of carriage were apparent and another approach was adopted for many subsequent weapons; semi-recessed carriage under the fuselage. The early sixties saw the deployment of two new ASM Air-Surface Missile types and specialised launch aircraft to carry them, both primarily dedicated to the antishipping role.
Both launch aircraft carried large and powerful attack radars, the Badger fitted with the I-band Puff Ball and the Bear with the I-Band Crown Drum, both also used datalinks for the midcourse guidance of their missiles, both of which would transition to autopilot guidance and, in the former case, active radar terminal homing for the final dive at the target. However both aircraft types were eventually built in large numbers and today represent as detailed above the bulk of the dedicated antishipping force with newer types taking on the counter-CBG role.
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One of these was the supersonic Blinder B also first seen in While the Blinder has had an unspectacular career, it offers comparable radius performance to the Badger with respectable Mach 1. The Blinder was however significant in that it carried the M3. The Backfire grew out of the Tu Fiddler and Tu Blinder designs, adopting airframe features from the former and systems from the latter with a variable geometry wing.
While the Backfire developed, the existing Badger force was equipped with a new missile, the transonic AS-5 Kelt. While this weapon was not spectacular it was smaller than the Kitchen and therefore well suited to underwing carriage. A large fraction of the Badger G force carries this weapon to this day. The performance limitations of the Kelt were apparent and it is now being supplanted with a newer missile, the late seventies AS-6 Kingfish.
The Kingfish is much like a smaller and lighter Kitchen and provides a respectable high speed capability to penetrate a SAM umbrella. Given the diversity of aircraft and missile types in the Soviet inventory and the range of possible targets, it would be unreasonable to classify any particular profile as typical although there are some common factors. While prelaunch targeting is done by the launch aircraft using its attack radar and ESM Electronic Support Measures where fitted, target detection and tracking over blue water at extended ranges requires powerful surface search radars. The recce platform, using data from intelligence or satellite sources, would sweep an area using both its ESM and radar preferring the former for its stealthiness.
Subject to the situation a target would be shadowed until strike aircraft would arrive and attack. The attack profile is target dependent, with merchant shipping being hit with ASMs such as Kelt and naval targets being hit with higher performance missiles such as Kitchen and Kingfish. Undefended merchant vessels would be attacked from cruise altitude, Badgers and Bears standing off from outside the range of any deck mounted point defence weapons. Naval vessels with area defence SAMs constitute more of a problem and in isolation would be attacked with several rounds to ensure saturation of the vessel's fire control system.
The 2, lb class warheads ensure a high probability of disabling on a near miss Exocet has a lb warhead. The Badger is a mainstay of Soviet Naval Aviation, used for recce, targeting, Elint and in large numbers for anti-shipping strike. The duckbill nosed C, modified C and D versions carry a powerful I-band surface search radar. The two Badgers at top are air refuelling while the bottom aircraft is equipped with a single Kingfish ASM beneath its port wing. The attack profile is accordingly more elaborate.
Backfires would attack enmasse in order to saturate the air defence system with real and false decoys and deception jamming missiles while supporting the attack with communications and radar noise jamming. The run-in to the missile release point would be at a low level, to delay detection to the very last instant, with its radar in standby mode.
Once detected by the E-2C the Backfire pilot would light his burners and pull up into a steep maximum rate climb which would be maintained until up to 30,OOOft or so; this is necessary to provide radar line of sight over the horizon to the CBG. The Backfire's I-band Down Beat radar would be activated only for the several sweeps necessary to lock up a target, any more would provide an EA-6B with an opportunity to jam or deceive. At this instant the Backfire is about nm from the CBG, and only several minutes have passed since its detection. The Kitchen is then released and the Backfire turns steeply degrees, after which it unloads and accelerates away from the CBG at supersonic speed.
The Backfire will jam also during its egress. It would be reasonable to expect a regiment size strike with groups of Backfires coordinating run-ins from widely separated angles to disperse the CAP fighters and confuse the SAM operators. The Kitchen will enter a shallow dive under its midcourse inertial guidance cruising at about 2. As it approaches its programmed target, it engages its active radar or passive anti-radiation terminal seeker and homes into impact, obliterating its target with its proximity fused 2,OOOlb class warhead. TuKD Bear B. TuK Bear G. Badger J carries a large ventral canoe radome which almost certainly houses stabilised jamming transmitter antennas much like that of the USAF EFA.
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Tu Bear F. Soviet Submarine Launched Antishipping Missiles. The Shaddock subsequently appeared in two active radar terminal homing antishipping versions, the SS-N-3a sub launched and SS-N-3b ship launched missiles and has together with its derivatives become the V-MF's primary long-range antishipping weapon. Twenty nine of the Echo 2 class were built, each of which carries 8 Shaddock SSMs and displaces cca 6, tons. These were supplemented by the conventional Juliets each of which carries 4 Shaddocks and displaces 3, tons.
Echo SSGN. The sub therefore had to expose itself and remain exposed during the flight of the Shaddock. This was understandably a dangerous practice when a mere nm from a CBG, therefore a missile and sub class were developed to allow underwater launching of SSMs using passive sonar targeting. The 0.
Supersonic equipped with alternate active radar or infra-red terminal seekers, the 70nm class Siren was a major improvement upon the SS-N-7 but even so failed to provide the range required to avoid the SSNs and ASW platforms of the USN. The Oscar would employ passive sonar targeting or raise a boom with a satcom or other antenna to receive targeting information from aircraft or satellites, while submerged. The SS-Ns are then fired submerged and use inertial midcourse guidance.
While the Oscar has the capability to launch a massive SSM strike, it is a large and lucrative target for any Allied SSN and would therefore be at considerable risk. To date only three of these boats have been built.
The Sandbox is a supersonic weapon comparable to the Shaddock but with slightly greater range and presumably a better terminal seeker, it is deployed on heavy cruisers. A key element in such a strike is the large TuRTs Bear D maritime recce aircraft, which will use its extensive range of ESM systems to locate likely surface targets. Once these are found the Bear will shadow the target until the SSGN has moved into a suitable position to attack.
The Echo will then surface and turn to a heading toward the target. A deck crew presumably will assist with the opening of the boat's fin, the forward part of which is hinged and swings open by degrees to expose the Front Door and Front Piece F-band midcourse guidance radar antennas.
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At this stage the large missile launchers, stowed horizontally and flush with the upper deck, are raised. These pivot at the aft end, where blast defecting indentations in the hull carry the flux of booster exhaust away from the boat the arrangement is not unlike the Transporter Erector Launcher used with the USAF Ground Launched Cruise Missile.
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All range and performance figures must be treated with caution, as many sources disagree over various parameters. Radar video from the Big Bulge is then transmitted via an AZ J-band datalink to the combat information centre of the Echo, where it presumably appears on a radar scope. Once a target is selected, a Shaddock is launched.
The missile will initially climb on a rocket booster until sufficient speed is attained to start up a turbojet cruise powerplant.
europeschool.com.ua/profiles/girofiguf/conocer-gente-de-nuevo-leon.php Front Door is a nodding height finder, above which the small azimuth tracking Front Piece is mounted. It is likely that the Shaddock carries an F-band transponder to minimise the required radar transmit power while avoiding scintillation. A datalink is then used to steer the Shaddock on to a desired heading, based on available missile and target track information. The Shaddock will steeply climb to an efficient cruise altitude and head toward the target on autopilot, with updates via datalink.
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Cruise altitudes of about 20, ft have been quoted although this would limit the duration of flight during which the Shaddock is above the Echo's radar horizon; higher altitudes may be used at longer ranges. The large Front Door antenna implies the need for accurate height information at extended ranges which supports this view. Once the Shaddock has been flown within several miles of the target, its active radar terminal seeker is engaged and the Shad dock dives into its target.
It is unclear from available literature whether the Shaddock remains under the sub's control until seeker engagement or whether there is a phase of flight under autopilot alone or autopilot with updates from the Bear's Big Bulge. All are reasonable and may in fact be version specific options. It is however reasonably certain that the fully sub controlled flightpath has been used as Echo's, and have been known to remain on the surface for up to 25 minutes after a Shaddock launch.